- What happens at floor change from hay fever to allergic asthma?
- Allergisches Asthma – trigger and symptoms
- So becomes Allergic Asthma diagnosed
- tips for prevention allergic asthma and therapies
For people who attend hay fever suffer, there is a higher risk a so-called “floor change”. This means that the allergy of the upper respiratory tract spreads to the lower respiratory tract and thus moves down one level. The risk increases when an existing hay fever not treated in a timely manner becomes.
What happens when you move from hay fever to allergic asthma?
Runny nose, sneezing and watery eyes are typical symptoms with a pollen allergy (Pollinosis), commonly referred to as hay fever. This is one Hypersensitivity reaction of the immune system against pollen from trees, shrubs, grasses and cereals. These are blown through the air and hit the mucous membranes in the mouth and nose. Here they can be used in people with pollen allergies allergic reaction trigger. As a rule, pollen fly in the months from February to October through the air between 5:00 a.m. and 9:00 p.m. and can spread rapidly. Plants can up to 4 million pollen per spike (e.g. rye) and distribute over several hundred kilometers.
To the main symptoms of a pollen allergy include:
- redness, tears and itching of the eyes (conjunctivitis)
- Swelling of the nasal mucosa, blocked and runny nose (runny nose)
- skin reactions
- Scratchy throat
- Occasionally Coughwhich can develop into allergic asthma over time (change of floor)
- Occasionally HeadacheSleep disorders, limited performance, e.g. B. by accumulation of mucus in the sinuses, which can make it difficult to breathe
How does the floor change happen? Experts assume that patients who only suffer from an allergic cold (allergic rhinitis) already changes in the lungs take place that increase the risk of allergic asthma. It is possible that allergic inflammatory reactions are already present in the body, and this applies to both the upper and lower airways. To the upper respiratory tract the nose, paranasal sinuses and pharynx are counted. The lower respiratory tract include the larynx, the trachea, the bronchi and the lungs themselves. With regard to the time course of an allergic-related inflammation, this already seems to be the case infancy as cradle cap, which then develops from hay fever to allergic asthma. But the sequence is not a must. In about 30% of patients, it develops within 10 years Bronchial asthma.
Allergic asthma – triggers and symptoms
Allergies are hereditary. The genetic influence is scientifically proven. Researchers found that hay fever and other allergies are about 65% genetic are. The risk increases here if the parents already suffer from an allergic disease. If both parents have allergies, the child has a 50 percent chance of also developing an allergy. This also increases the risk of developing asthma. There is less clear evidence to suggest that passive smoking and premature births represent other risk factors. The so-called SHARE Study compared the three most common allergic diseases: neurodermatitis, hay fever and asthma. Here, the scientists were able to prove that a large number of gene loci Increased risk for all three diseases. This strengthened the suspicion that various allergic diseases common genetic causes have. Whether an allergy occurs depends on other genetic factors and environmental influences.
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The most common allergens involved in allergy-related asthma include:
- pollen, house dust mites or insects
- Food, mold, animal hair
However, allergic asthma is not only triggered by allergens. The typical symptoms usually appear in connection with specific ones external stimuli. These include, for example:
- physical exertion
- cold air, smoke, fog
- respiratory infections
The following symptoms often occur in allergic asthma:
- sudden shortness of breath, shortness of breath
- severe cough, wheezing when breathing, difficulty exhaling
- Restlessness and excitement, increased heart rate
Important: Occurs during an allergic asthma attack acute shortness of breath on or will the person concerned unconsciousthis is one medical emergency. The emergency doctor must be alerted immediately. Asthmatics usually wear it emergency medication such as asthma spray, which were prescribed to them by a doctor.
How is allergic asthma diagnosed?
Various tests enable the doctor to find out whether the symptoms are caused by allergies (Allergisches Asthma), there are no allergy-related causes (Intrinsisches Asthma) or whether a so-called exercise-induced asthma present.
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The following tests are carried out if asthma is suspected:
- Detailed survey: With the so-called anamnesis, the doctor gets an initial impression of the illness. For example, questions are asked about the symptoms, how often they occur and what triggers them, whether other family members are affected, whether medication is being taken or whether there are previous illnesses. To prepare for the interview, this Asthma self-test be used.
- Physical examination: Among other things, the lungs are listened to to determine any existing noises and the body is observed during inhalation and exhalation.
- Lung function test
- Spirometrie: A so-called spirometer records both calm breathing and maximum inhalation and exhalation. The patients breathe through a mouthpiece, with the nose being closed with a clip during the measurement. be here different values determined, which provide important information on lung function.
- Body-Plethysmografie: In this examination, also known as “large lung function”, patients are in an airtight glass cabin. This allows the pressure differences that occur in the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs when breathing in and out to be continuously measured.
- Spiroergometry: Do the symptoms occur predominantly during physical exertion (exercise-induced asthma), the lung function is measured before and after a stress unit, for example on an ergometer.
- Prick-Test: A skin test is used to determine which allergens cause wheals and reddening.
- RAST-Test (Radio-Allergo-Sorbent-Test): In allergic reactions, specific proteins called immunoglobulins E (IgE) are formed in the body. Elevated IgE concentrations against certain allergens and an increased total concentration of IgE can be determined using a blood test.
- Provokationstest: In this test, certain allergens are inhaled into the airways and onto the nasal mucosa, and the strength of the reaction to the allergens is then tested using a lung test. However, this test is not useful if you have severe asthma to prevent the risk of possible shortness of breath.
- FeNO-Measurement: FeNO stands for Fraction Expiratory Nitric Oxide. This is a measurement of the nitrogen oxides in the exhaled air. Their content is higher, the more inflamed the airways are. However, the measurement is not part of the service catalog of the health insurance companies and you may have to pay for it yourself.
Tips for the prevention of allergic asthma and therapies
The aim of every asthma therapy is to “state of controlled asthma” to reach. Although the disease is chronic, there are various preventive, non-drug and drug therapies that enable you to live as symptom-free as possible.
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Preventive measures for allergic asthma:
- If you suspect you have hay fever or allergic asthma, don’t examine by a specialistto determine the possible allergens. With the Asthma self-test you can optimally prepare for the interview with the doctor.
- If you are allergic to certain foods, avoid them and also pay attention to possible ones cross allergies.
- If you are in one house dust allergy suffer, can you special allergy-friendly bedding help reduce mite contact during sleep.
- If you allergic to pollen react:
- Inform yourself daily using the pollen forecast about the current pollen count in your region.
- prefer Holiday regions on the coast or in the high mountainssince the pollen count is generally lower here.
- Install pollen protection grid on your bedroom windows to keep exposure low.
- Stand under them before you go to bed Shower and wash your hair so that the pollen does not weigh you down at night. Also one I was in a shower using special nasal salts can provide relief.
Non-drug treatment options:
- Patients learn how to use inhaled medication correctly, such as asthma spray asthma education. In addition, the effects and intake of the medication are explained here and those affected learn how to better assess symptoms. This is particularly important here correct behavior during an acute asthma attack.
- In order to keep an eye on the course of the disease, it is advisable to carry one Asthma diaryfor example to better discover triggers and to better assess the effect of the medication.
- Despite asthma it is recommended to yourself to move regularly. This increases resilience and improves the quality of life. It is important that Required medicines always at hand are. Yoga and meditation in particular can also help to control breathing.
- One smoking cessation is an important step to improve lung function and reduce inflammation.
The treatment of asthma with medication is based on a specific phased plan according to the National asthma care guideline (NVL), with the aim of treating chronic inflammation and narrowing of the airways. The focus of the step-by-step plan is that patients as few side effects as possible experienced through the medication. In each treatment stage, a hyposensitization recommended. With this therapy you will be over a period of three years confronted with the allergens in a controlled manner. This is to ensure that your body slowly gets used to the allergens and no longer causes reactions. The therapy can be given by injection or in the form of tablets or drops.
Hay fever should not be taken lightly, even if the symptoms only affect you for a few weeks a year. If left untreated, the symptoms can shift from the upper to the lower respiratory tract floor change referred to as. Allergisches Asthmawhich is a chronic disease, can result.