Assistant Professor Dr. Pichitra Lekdumrongkul, Lecturer at the Department of Internal Medicine Nursing Faculty of Nursing Mahidol University Provide information about “cancer” that is a disease caused by abnormalities of cells in the body (DNA) or genetic material in the body that divides abnormally. caused by genetic abnormalities and/or incomplete DNA repair mechanisms in vivo causing abnormal cells to divide more until it becomes a cell with abnormal growth and become cancer cells However, the severity of cancer depends on the location of the disease. cancer cell type and stage of cancer The risk factors for cancer are caused by many reasons. It can be easily classified into 3 main factors as follows:
- We – Caused by a genetic abnormality that is congenital. viral infection and deterioration of the body from increasing age, such as inheriting genes that cause cancer Infection with hepatitis B virus, HPV virus and HIV virus etc.
- Environment – Being in an environment that is polluted, unclean, such as PM 2.5 dust, second-hand smoke, inhalation of toxins from industrial occupations and exposure to many chemicals on a regular basis, etc.
- Behaviors of individuals – daily life, such as not protecting oneself from sunlight, eating foods that contain carcinogens regularly, such as grilled foods, eating the same food repeatedly, obesity and smoking, etc.
In our daily life, there are many substances that trigger cancer in the body. If exposed to or exposed to these substances for a long time, such as aflatoxin from the fungus in peanuts Cashew nuts, dried shrimp, onions, garlic, etc. Heterocyclic Amines (HCAs) in grilled foods are charred. Acrylamide is found in foods that are fried or baked at high temperatures. Foods that have been used repeatedly in frying oil for more than 2 times will result in carcinogens due to degradation of the deteriorated oil. It can often be found in food such as fried potatoes, deep fried bananas, fried bananas (using repeated use of frying oil), crispy toasted bread. nitrates – nitrites (Nitrate-Nitrite) or red meat accelerator Often found in meat products such as sausages, ham, bacon, fermented sausage, etc. Organophosphate substances (Organophosphate) is a substance from pesticides contaminated with fruit and acetaldehyde. (Acetaldehyde) from drinking high amounts of alcohol for a long time. Causes accumulation in the body in higher amounts until the body can’t excrete in time and will destroy the DNA in the body, including stimulating various cancer genes in the body
Assistant Professor Dr. Pichitra Lekdumrongkul said that carcinogens are mixed in many parts of our daily lives. Therefore, ways to help avoid these carcinogens can be done by: food selection Selection of raw materials for cooking (In the case of self-cooking) Wash vegetables and fruits properly according to the process. Shop for vegetables and meat from toxic-free sources. Including the need for cooperation from many sectors in raising awareness among the people who are the source of food production, such as growing organic vegetables. Or raise animals without chemicals. In addition, weight control. breast self-examination cervical cancer screening gastrointestinal endoscopy And vaccinating against various diseases on schedule can help reduce the risk of disease.
In this regard, we can initially observe our own symptoms with 7 dangerous signs that indicate that there may be a risk of cancer, namely:
1) Changes in the excretory/urinary system such as constipation alternating with diarrhea Smaller stools, difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, etc.
2) The wound is difficult to heal
3) Having abnormal secretions flowing from the anus of the body, such as abnormal vaginal bleeding, abnormal vaginal discharge, etc.
4) palpation of a lump according to different areas of the body
5) Food intake changes, such as having difficulty swallowing swallowing food hurts
6) There are moles, warts that are larger, darker in color, and bleed.
7) Abnormal cough, sore throat, hoarse voice
If there are any of the above symptoms, you should consult a doctor in order to be treated promptly. Current methods of treating cancer patients use surgery. chemotherapy or targeted therapy and radiotherapy The doctor will consider selecting a treatment method that is appropriate for the type of cancer and the stage of cancer in each patient.
However, doctors/nurses are mainly responsible for treating physical diseases. As for the patients themselves, they must help the doctor/nurse to take care of both their physical and mental health simultaneously. Simple self-care for cancer patients during treatment Is to get enough rest and drink a lot of water at least 2,000 – 3,000 ml/day Eat high-protein foods such as eggs, fish, meat, beans, avoid fresh vegetables and fermented foods such as papaya salad, spicy salads, various chili pastes, and keep your body clean. and environment Avoid going to community places after receiving chemotherapy for 7-14 days to reduce the risk of infection.
However, cancer patients during treatment You can do activities or do light exercise to prevent/relieve fatigue (fatigue). Find activities you like to do, such as watching movies, listening to music, praying, and meditating to distract yourself from illness. alleviate anxiety stress from illness These are the areas that the patient and family can help each other take care of the patient’s physical and mental condition during treatment To promote physical and mental strength to be ready for cancer treatment.