Time.news – Collapsing life expectancy, increasing inequalities, an economic system hit “in alarming and unpredictable forms and intensities”. From the Istat report on fair and sustainable wellbeing, explains the president of the institute, Gian Carlo Blangiardo, “a country in great difficulty emerges which, however, keeps reserves of hope alive”. the wounds of the pandemic will take time to heal
Life expectancy collapses
“The positive evolution of life expectancy at birth between 2010 and 2019, albeit with evident geographical and gender inequalities, was severely curbed by Covid-19 which canceled, completely in the North and partially in the other areas of the country, the expected earnings in years of life accrued over the decade “. The figure goes from 81.7 years in 2010 to 83.2 years in 2019 before plummeting to 82.3 years in 2020. In particular, in the North, life expectancy goes from 82.1 years in 2010 to 83.6 in 2019, to drop again to 82 years in 2020. In the Center it goes from 81.9 in 2010 to 83.1 years in 2020 and in the South from 81.1 to 82.2 years, with less significant losses in the last year (respectively -0.5 and -0.3 years). “It is a setback that has not yet been completed, and that will take time to be fully recovered”, underlines Istat.
With dad increases inequality, 8% of pupils are excluded
“In Italy, despite the improvements achieved in the last decade, it is still not possible to offer all young people the same opportunities for adequate education. The level of education and skills that young people manage to achieve still depend on largely from the social background, the socio-economic context and the territory in which one lives. The pandemic of 2020, with the consequent closure of schools and universities and the shift towards distance learning, or integrated, has exacerbated inequalities “. 8% of school children and young people of all levels were excluded from any form of distance learning and did not take part in the video lessons with the class group. This share rises to 23% among pupils with disabilities.
Few graduates, the gap with Europe widens
The gap with Europe on education continues to widen: in the second quarter of 2020, 62.6% of people aged 25-64 have at least a high school diploma (54.8% in 2010); this share is below the European average by 16 percentage points. Among young people aged 30-34, 27.9% have a university or tertiary qualification (19.8% in 2010) against 42.1% of the EU27 average.
The economic system has been alarmingly hit
“The outbreak of the pandemic has hit the Italian economic system in alarming and unpredictable shapes and intensities. The collapse in levels of economic activity had negative effects on income, purchasing power and above all on consumer spending. The increase in poverty has concentrated on some segments of the population and on some territories. “The preliminary estimate for 2020 identifies over 5.6 million individuals in absolute poverty in Italy, with an average incidence of 9.4%, up from 7.7% in 2019: these are the highest values since 2005. Poverty is growing especially in the North, an area particularly affected by the pandemic, where the percentage of absolute poor from 6.8% to 9.4% of individuals; on the other hand, growth was more contained in the Center (from 5.6% to 6.7% of individuals) and in the South (from 10.1% to 11.1%). It also mainly affects families with children and young people: the incidence of poverty among individuals under the age of 18 rises by more than two percentage points (from 11.4% to 13.6%, the highest value since 2005) for a total of 1 million and 346 thousand poor children and young people, 209 thousand more than the previous year.
Life satisfaction improves, but confidence in the future decreases
In 2020, less than half of the population (44.5%) cast a vote between 8 and 10 on satisfaction with their life, a slight increase compared to the previous year (43.2%). S territorial differences remain, with a higher percentage of people satisfied with their lives in the North (48.4%), almost four percentage points more than the national average, and lower levels in the Center and in the South (respectively, 43% and 40%). The critical situation in the country caused by the Covid-19 epidemic has had a negative impact on future prospects. After years of increasing, in 2020 the percentage of people who expect an improvement in their situation in the next five years falls to 28.9% (30.1% in 2019). At the same time, after years of reduction, the share of those who believe that their situation will worsen in the next five years increases in the North and in the Center (13.3% in the North, one percentage point more than in 2019, 14% in the Center, + 1.5 percentage points).
One in three families without a computer and Internet access
The spread of ICT among families and individuals increased significantly in 2020, bringing the share of regular Internet users to 69.2% (it was 43.9% in 2010). 8%), the elderly (44% for the 65-74 age group; 12.9% for those over 75) and those who live in the South, with a difference of 9 percentage points compared to residents in the Center-North (72, 3%). In 2020, a third of Italian families do not have computers and Internet access from home. The differences are very accentuated when looking at the educational qualification: from 7.2% of families in which at least one member has a degree, it goes to 68.3% of those in which the highest qualification is the middle school certificate. 12.6% of families in which there is at least one minor and 70% of families made up of elderly people do not have an Internet connection and PC. The disadvantage of southern families increases: in 2020 the gap with respect to families in the North is 10 percentage points, 3 more than in 2010.
How many are afraid of losing their jobs
The percentage of workers who perceive themselves as highly vulnerable records an inversion of the trend of constant decrease in recent years: in the second quarter of 2020 it was 7.8% (+1.9 points compared to the second quarter of 2019, + 400 thousand ). In all, almost 1 million and 800 thousand employed people are strongly afraid of losing their jobs without having the possibility of replacing them. In the second quarter of 2020, the health emergency led to a sharp decline in the number of employees in Italy: there are 788,000 fewer (between 20-64 years old) compared to the same quarter of the previous year; the employment rate (always 20-64 years) drops to 62%, a decrease of 2 percentage points. In ten years, the gaps with Europe in employment rates have widened further and are particularly evident for women. In 2010, the employment rate of women aged 20-64 in Italy was 11.5 points lower than the European average, and in 2020 the gap reaches about 14 points less.
Fewer and fewer places in the hospital
TBetween 2010 and 2018, the number of hospital beds fell by an average of 1.8% per year to 3.49, between ordinary and day hospital, per 1,000 inhabitants. There was also a decrease in the number of beds in high-intensity care wards between 2010 and 2018 (from 3.51 per 10 thousand inhabitants to 3.04) and we are witnessing a constant growth in the rate of mobility for reasons of care from the southern regions and from the Center between 2010 and 2019 (from 9.2 to 10.9 for every 100 resignations of residents in the South, from 7.4 to 9 in the Center).
In 2019 there are approximately 241,000 doctors (including specialists and primary care doctors) and free choice pediatricians who carry out their activities in the Italian public and private health system. With four doctors for every 1,000 residents, our country ranks among the first in Europe but doctors are on average more “elderly” than their colleagues in other European countries (one in two doctors is over 55). The situation of the nursing staff is not as favorable, in fact Italy ranks last in Europe for the number of nurses, about 6 for every 1,000 residents. In 2020, one in 10 citizens said they had given up healthcare services in the last 12 months due to access difficulties, even though they needed it. The strong increase (6.3% in 2019) is certainly extraordinary: over 50% of those who give up report reasons related to the Covid-19 pandemic.