Chairman of the Federation Council Committee on Economic Policy Andrei Kutepov proposed a bill aimed at regulating the use and circulation of robots in Russia, TASS reports with reference to the document. The initiative is aimed at obtaining feedback from the Ministry of Economic Development and the Ministry of Digital Industry.
“The bill creates the basis for the legal regulation of new social relations, which are formed in connection with the use of robotics systems, which are mainly stimulating in nature,” – said in the explanatory note to the bill.
The parliamentarian proposed a definition of the concept of “robot” in Russia. Such, according to the author, is a product of the achievements of digital technologies (a robotic device, a complex, a system) with two or more component parts, controlled by the means of a computer program embedded in it and capable of both performing actions pre-programmed by a person and solving problems autonomously.
Kutepov proposes to divide all robots into two categories – civil and service. The first includes machines whose activities are “aimed at the realization of private interests” and whose circulation is regulated by civil law. These, in turn, can be industrial, service, medical, educational and scientific.
The activity of service robots is aimed “at the realization of the interests of the state and society”, they are involved “in the sphere of activity of public authorities”. Military and law enforcement vehicles fall into this category. The former are involved in the defense and security of the state, the latter are used to protect public order.
In addition, the senator considers it necessary to divide robots into four classes according to the degree of danger – high (class I), medium (II), low (III), as well as highlight non-hazardous devices (IV). The first three are proposed to be considered sources of increased danger. These should be subject to the general provisions of civil legislation on liability for harm “caused by activities that create an increased danger to others,” the author of the initiative believes.
In addition, Kutepov wants to divide robots into controlled and autonomous ones. He proposed to create a state cadastre of models of robots and their components and a register of entities operating in the field of turnover of robots and their modules. The bill also envisages a ban on the circulation in Russia of robots capable of making decisions on their own.
“On the territory of the Russian Federation, the circulation of robots that have the ability to independently make decisions and are able to act on the basis of an independently formulated behavioral algorithm, which are deliberately given properties to ensure their use with the use of weapons, its main parts, ammunition, explosives and explosive devices or other weapons, is prohibited. “, – follows from the text of the bill.
The senator also proposed to ban the circulation of robots, which “are deliberately given properties that ensure their use with the use of weapons, ammunition, explosives and explosive devices or other weapons, other military equipment, chemical, biological, toxin, and other types of weapons of mass destruction.” This also applies to machines designed to commit crimes.