Adalja said: “I don’t think we have enough data to fully categorize it right now. I think there are some suggestions. But there are more studies that need to be done,” Adalja said.
“There are other infections, such as syphilis, that are spread through methods other than sexual transmission,” he said. “Zika is a mosquito-borne disease. But it can also be sexually transmitted. The question for me is more than making sure we are clear on what is going on from a physiological point of view before you make that kind of claim.”
Some experts argue that labeling chickenpox as an STD is not only misleading. But it can also be a danger to public health.
“The negative aspect of saying chickenpox is a sexually transmitted disease is that people who have not had sex immediately think, ‘OK, I’m not going to get it,’” said Dr. Saju Mathew, a primary and public care physician in Atlanta. health professional
“What a lot of people will think is that it’s like herpes, gonorrhea or chlamydia – meaning you have to have sex to get it. that’s not true Therefore, suggesting that it is only a sexually transmitted disease is dangerous. misinformation,” he said. but not only through close contact You can also get in touch through a less intimate contact.”
National Coalition of STD Director David Harvey said he and his colleagues refer to monkey pox as “the most common disease in the world.” “Sexual Infections” Now
“With the information currently available We know that the main mode of transmission is sexually related – sexually transmitted infections. Technically, sexually transmitted infections means exchanging genital fluids with viruses or bacteria. related to STDs,” Harvey said. “We need science to clearly show that this is an infection that can be transmitted through semen or genital fluid. And the science in that area is still unclear. That’s why we call this sex-related.”
What causes STDs?
STDs, also known as STIs or STDs, are infections that are transmitted from one person to another through sexual contact, such as through intercourse. Oral or anal delivery. In some cases, these infections can also be spread through close skin-to-skin contact. as well as herpes and HPV.
The long history of sexually transmitted diseases dates back to ancient times. Some studies suggest that the migration of modern human ancestors may be related to HPV, a type of herpes and other STIs.
in modern times The study in Nigeria is one of the first reports. The latest to describe the sexually transmitted epidemic of chickenpox. The country experienced a major human chickenpox outbreak in September 2017, and a study on the disease was published in the journal PLOS One in 2019. Previously, it was estimated that human-to-human transmission primarily occurred. from saliva or respiratory droplets or direct contact with pus or crusts of the wound
“There is no official process to label an infection as an STI or STD,” said Kristen Nordlund, a spokesperson for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Wrote in an email to CNN on Monday. “Experts often determine scientifically whether pathogens can be transmitted through sex. which in this case is called ‘STIs’ and the frequency of infections known as STIs were related to the proportion of transmission by sex compared to other routes but without the ‘rubric’. used as a guideline for this determination.”
Smallpox in monkeys, she said, could be more precisely described as This is because sex is one way the virus can spread. but not the only way
“Gender is a human behavior. If the stigma is not related to a sexually transmitted infection The concern is that the chickenpox monkey is a sexually transmitted disease (STI) for those who are more severely affected.” Nordlund writes. “It is important to consider this question worldwide – and remember that the meaning of this label will vary depending on where you are in the world. For example, there are countries where homosexuality is punished by prison or even death. STDs or STIs can have widespread consequences in these countries.”
Monkeypox virus can be spread during skin contact. Direct contact with Monkeypox rash or scabs from an infected person or direct contact with respiratory secretions Scientists are still researching whether chickenpox can be spread through semen or vaginal fluid.
Although the risk is low But it has the potential for The virus is spread through objects or surfaces such as clothing, bedding or towels that people with monkey pox have.
Matthew said the skin lesions caused by smallpox infections in monkeys were real. It can then be mistaken for a common STD such as herpes or syphilis, and in some cases, people with chickenpox may be infected with a common STD.
when he treated the first chickenpox patient in Atlanta. Matthew immediately noticed that people But the 25-year-old also had anal pain, Matthew said. “He ended up with a sexually transmitted disease other than monkey pox,” which is herpes.
Matthew adds that about 25% of smallpox cases in the United States have a co-existing disease.
Harvey said “When diagnosing smallpox You must be screened for monkey pox. But you need to periodically take other STI tests to make sure they are ruled out or diagnosed as well.”
“We happen to have the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Basically in American history So it is not surprising that we are diagnosing more STIs in the context of the current smallpox epidemic,” he said. “Usually we hear from some of our clinics across the country that they see a rate of 15%. Up to 40% of co-infections with other STIs, but we don’t currently have national data on that.”
The CDC’s clinical guidance tells health care providers that “It is important to comprehensively assess patients with genital or perianal lesions for STIs. However, co-infections with chickenpox and STIs have been reported. And the presence of an STD does not distinguish chickenpox.”
Jason Farley, a nursing scientist and chair of the Leadership and Innovation Endowment at Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, said in an email to CNN.
“The virus is spreading among close contacts and sexual networks within gay, bisexual and other men. who have sex with the male community We also found an epidemic Although limited until now Within households with male, female and child patients, the latter is more likely to transmit the infection through parent-child skin contact. But environmental contamination resulting in transmission is also possible,” Farley wrote.
“If we look at the response to AIDS, for example, it will take almost a decade for the heterosexual community to become aware of and recognize that HIV is not a gay disease,” he wrote. The same inaccuracies guide our public health practice today.”
Harvey, of the National Coalition of STD Director, says stigma is something STD clinics fight every day and he’s worried. Concerning a stigmatized monkeypox outbreak in the context of a sexually-related disease
“We don’t want people to overlook this as a sexually transmitted disease. but to some extent This stigmatizes STIs,” he said. “So for those of us who work in this field full time and deal with these issues every day in and out. We want to do everything we can to break the stigma. especially in relation to sexually transmitted infections. To ensure that people are tested and treated without shame or fear.”
Overall, whether Monkeypox is defined as an STD or not, Harvey said the response to the outbreak is weighing STD clinics.
“STIs and sexual health clinics across the country are currently facing a huge demand for testing and treatment. And they don’t have any additional funding to support the influx of patients. We are also seeing testing for other STIs and care being disrupted,” Harvey said.
One survey in more than 80 clinics was conducted by the National Coalition of STD Directors. Between July 26-29, 63% were referred by another healthcare provider for suspected cases of chickenpox, 52% served rejected people. Other providers and 40% have unexpected expenses for supplies or personnel due to the smallpox response.
Additionally, 65% of clinics had to make workflow adjustments to manage chickenpox, such as switching from walk-in clinics to appointment-only, and 22% had to reduce both symptomatic and non-symptomatic screening for STDs. other sex to prioritize smallpox services
There is a “lack of additional funding lack of federal funding that can directly support these programs.” Harvey said. “These programs require medical support, testing, payment for testing. They require additional staff hours and other types of talent. to help support the response to this outbreak.”